The type of reproduction that takes place without the process of gamete (sex cell) formation is called asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is the primary form of reproduction for single-celled organisms such as the archaea, bacteria, and protists. Many plants and fungi reproduce asexually as well. Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only. The offspring will be the exact genetic copies of the parent. Binary fission and budding are two common method of asexual reproduction. Binary fission is found in unicellular organisms like Amoeba, Paramaecium and Euglena, to name and few. Budding is found in Yeast and Hydra.
This video explains (a) Binary Fission in Amoeba and (b) Budding in Yeast.