Atal Tinkering Labs ATL

   

Separation of Components of a Mixture

Most of the matter in our surroundings exists as mixtures of two or more components. Examples: Milk, Soil, Sea water. etc. A mixture shows the properties of its constituent elements. The components of a mixture can be separated by physical methods like handpicking, filtration and so on. Sometimes special techniques have to be used for the separation of the components of a mixture.   This video explains how to separate the components of a mixture of ammonium chloride, salt and sand.  

Tests for Group I Lead Ion

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb. It is found in lead pencil and lead acid battery. Lead is found in many salts like lead nitrate and lead acetate as lead (II) ion. In group I, lead (II) ions are precipitated as their chlorides by adding dilute hydrochloric acid to their solutions. Lead chloride solution in hot water when reacts with potassium iodide solution to form yellow precipitate of lead iodide and potassium chromate to form yellow precipitate of lead chromate.   This video explains how to test the presence of group I lead ion in a given salt….

Chemical Tests for Oxalate

Oxalates are salts of oxalic acid containing oxalate ion. Oxalate ion is a dianion. Upon protonation, oxalate ion forms a commonly known compound, oxalic acid. The commonly known oxalate salts are sodium oxalate, potassium oxalate etc. The calcium metal ion reacts with oxalate ion to form an insoluble precipitate of calcium oxalate, which is the primary constituent of most of the common kind of Kidney stones.   This video explains how to test the presence of oxalate ion in a given salt.  

Melting Point of Ice

Melting point of a solid is defined as the temperature at which a solid changes into liquid. Melting point of a solid indicates the strength of the force of attraction between the particles of the solid. On heating a solid, its molecule absorbs energy in the form of heat and their kinetic energy increases. As the kinetic energy increase the temperature of the solid increases. As a result, the force of attraction between the molecules decreases and the molecules become more and more separated. This increases the potential energy of the molecule and the particles leave their fixed positions and…

Equivalent Resistance of Resistors (Series)

An electric circuit is simply a closed loop through which charges can continuously move. An electric circuit basically contains a source of electricity, a load resistance, a switch or a key for turning the circuit on or off at one’s convenience. When two or more resistors are connected such a way that one end of one resistor is connected to the starting end of the other, then the circuit is called a Series Circuit. Since the current has only one path to take, the current through a series circuit is the same through each resistor. The total resistance/effective resistance of…

Rate of Respiration

Respiration is the process during which simple carbohydrates, like glucose, break down into simpler substances and liberate carbon dioxide and energy. The compound used, or oxidized, during respiration is called a respiratory substrate. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are examples of respiratory substrates, and carbohydrates are the preferred respiratory substrate among them. Respiration produces a great deal of energy that is needed by plants to grow and stay healthy. Excess sugars produced by photosynthesis that are not needed for respiration and growth are stored as starch which can then be converted back to sugars when needed during periods of low light….

To Study the Properties of Acids and Bases

The sour and bitter tastes we find in food are due to the presence of acids and bases. Some naturally occurring acids are: vinegar (acetic acid), citric acid (present in orange and lemon), tartaric acid (present in tamarind), etc. Also our stomach produces hydrochloric acid which helps in the digestion of food. Some commonly used bases are baking soda and tooth paste. Tooth paste is a basic substance used for cleaning the teeth and it neutralizes the excess of acids present in the mouth and prevents tooth decay.   This video explains how to study the properties of acids and…

Tests for Aluminium Ion

Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminum has three oxidation states. The most common one is +3. The other two are +1 and +2. One +3 oxidation state for Aluminum can be found in the compound aluminum oxide, Al2O3. In AlO, aluminum monoxide, it has a +2 oxidation state, and AlH has an oxidation state of +1.It is found in various salts like aluminium chloride and aluminium oxide as Al (III) ion. Aluminium ion is precipitated as its hydroxide by adding ammonium hydroxide to its solution.   This video explains…

Life Cycle of a Mosquito

The mosquitoes are a family of small, midge-like flies. Like all flies, mosquitoes go through four stages in their life – egg, larva, pupa, and adult. We call this as the life cycle. Each of these stages is morphologically different from the other, with even the habitat of each stage differing. The first three stages – egg, larva and pupa are largely aquatic, whereas the adult stage is aerial. The eggs are laid one at a time and they float on the surface of the water. Most eggs hatch into larvae within 48 hours. Mosquito larvae live in water from…

Metre Bridge-Law of Combination of resistors

The metre bridge, consists of a one metre long wire of uniform cross sectional area, fixed on a wooden block. A scale is attached to the block. Two gaps are formed on it by using thick metal strips in order to make the Wheat stone’s bridge. The metre bridge is operates under Wheat stone’s principle. Here, four resistors P, Q, R, and S are connected to form the network ABCD. In the balancing condition, there is no deflection on the galvanometer. Then, P/q = R/S.   This video explains how to verify the laws of resistances in series and parallel….

Velocity of Pulse Propagated Through a Slinky

A slinky is a long helical spring, usually made of steel. It is flexible and has appreciable elasticity. It produces transverse waves when one end is fixed and the other end is stretched and given a jerk at right angle to its length. It produces longitudinal waves when compressions are given at regular intervals of time at the free end of the slinky. A disturbance which propagates through a medium is called wave.   This video explains how to determine the velocity of a pulse propagated through a slinky or a stretched string.  

Newton’s law of Cooling

The Newton’s Law of Cooling is named after the famous English Physicist Sir Isaac Newton, who conducted the first experiments on the nature of cooling. According to Newton’s Law of Cooling, the rate of cooling of a body is directly proportional to the difference in temperatures of the body (T) and the surrounding (T0), provided difference in temperature should not exceed by 30 °C.   This video explains how to study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and its time of cooling by plotting a cooling curve.  

Chemical tests for Bromide

Bromides are chemical compounds containing bromide ion. Bromide ion is formed when bromine atom gains an electron. The examples of bromide salts are sodium bromide, potassium bromide, cesium bromide etc. Bromide is also present in typical seawater with a concentration of around 65 mg/L. One important salt of bromide is silver bromide which is used in photographic films.   This video explains how to test the presence of bromide ion in a given salt.  

The Law of Conservation of Mass

A chemical reaction is process by which one set of chemical substances is transformed to another. The French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier, who is known as the father of modern chemistry, proved that the mass of the products in a chemical reaction is equal to the mass of the reactants.   “The Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction”.   This video explains how to verify the Law of Conservation of Mass during a chemical reaction.  

Double Displacement Reaction

Double displacement reactions may be defined as the chemical reactions in which one component each of both the reacting molecules get exchanged to form the products. During this reaction, the cations and anions of two different compounds switch places, forming two entirely different compounds. Double displacement reactions generally take place in aqueous solutions in which the ions precipitate and there is an exchange of ions. For example, on mixing a solution of barium chloride with sodium sulphate, a white precipitate of barium sulphate is immediately formed. These reactions are ionic in nature. The reactants changes into ions when dissolved in…

Reaction of Iron Nails with Copper Sulphate Solution in Water

When an iron nail is dipped in copper sulphate solution, a brown coating of copper is formed on the surface of iron and the colour of copper sulphate solution changes from blue to light green. This reaction shows that iron is more reactive than copper as it displaces copper from its solution and iron passes into solution as Fe (II) ions and ferrous sulphate solution is formed.   This video explains the chemical change occurs during the reaction of iron nails with copper sulphate solution.  

Chemical Tests for Nitrite

Nitrites are inorganic compounds contain nitrite ion in which nitrogen is bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is a symmetric anion with equal nitrogen – oxygen bond length and O-N-O bond angle of approximately 120 °C. Upon protonation, nitrite ion produces weak nitrous acid, which is unstable.   This video explains how to test the presence of nitrite ion in a given salt.  

Detection of Adulterant in Dal

Food is one of the essential factors in our daily life that provides nutritional support for the human body. Due to the population explosion in India the demand for food has increased and traders have started mixing cheaper substances with food. These cheaper or undesirable substances added to food are called adulterants. Metanil yellow is a principal non-permitted food colour used extensively in India. The effect of long-term consumption of metanil yellow on the developing and adult brain causes neurotoxicity. Metanil yellow is used in dal as an adulterant for colouring. Its presence can be tested in dal with the…

Zener Diode

A Zener diode is a heavily doped silicon crystal diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode. It also permits the current to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value known as the breakdown voltage. Breakdown voltage is also known as Zener knee voltage. The device was named after an American Physicist, Clarence Zener, who described the property concerning the breakdown of electrical insulators. The device consists of a reverse biased, highly doped, p-n junction diode operating in the breakdown region. Conventional diodes and…

Separating Funnel

Separating funnel is used for the separation of components of a mixture between two immiscible liquid phases. One phase is the aqueous phase and the other phase is an organic solvent. This separation is based on the differences in the densities of the liquids. The liquid having more density forms the lower layer and the liquid having less density forms the upper layer.   This video explains how to separate a mixture of oil and water using a separating funnel.  

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