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Characteristics of Plants

The kingdom Plantae consists of different types of plants that are eukaryotic, multicellular organisms having photosynthetic pigments and cell walls. Plants are classified in several different ways based on various external and internal characteristics. Based on these characteristics, plants are classified into multicellular groups such as thalophytes, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms.   This video describes the characteristics of spirogyra, agaricus, moss, fern, pinus and an angiosperm.  

Rate of Transpiration

Transpiration is a process that involves loss of water vapour through the stomata of plants. There is a close inter-relationship between transpiration and leaf structure. The rate at which transpiration occurs refers to the amount of water lost by plants over a given time period. Plants regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing of stomata. Each stomata has a slit like opening called the stomatal pore, which is surrounded by two special cells called the guard cells. These special cells help to regulate the rate of transpiration by opening and closing the stomata A number of external factors…

Pressure Exerted by a Solid Iron Cuboid on Sand

The mass (m) of an object is a fundamental property of the object. In everyday usage, mass is often referred to as weight. An object’s weight depends on its environment, while its mass does not. In science, the weight of an object is the force on the object due to gravity. The force acting on an object perpendicular to the surface is called thrust. The effect of thrust depends on the area on which it acts. The thrust on unit area is called pressure.   This video explains how to study and compare the pressure exerted by a solid iron…

Chemical Tests for Phosphate

Phosphates are inorganic salts containing phosphate ion. The It contains a central phosphorous atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The most well known compound containing phosphate ion is phosphoric acid. Phosphate ions react with ammonium molybdate to produce a characteristic yellow precipitate, ammonium phosphomolybdate.   This video explains how to test the presence of phosphate ion in a given salt.  

Separation of Components of a Mixture

Most of the matter in our surroundings exists as mixtures of two or more components. Examples: Milk, Soil, Sea water. etc. A mixture shows the properties of its constituent elements. The components of a mixture can be separated by physical methods like handpicking, filtration and so on. Sometimes special techniques have to be used for the separation of the components of a mixture.   This video explains how to separate the components of a mixture of ammonium chloride, salt and sand.  

Tests for Group I Lead Ion

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb. It is found in lead pencil and lead acid battery. Lead is found in many salts like lead nitrate and lead acetate as lead (II) ion. In group I, lead (II) ions are precipitated as their chlorides by adding dilute hydrochloric acid to their solutions. Lead chloride solution in hot water when reacts with potassium iodide solution to form yellow precipitate of lead iodide and potassium chromate to form yellow precipitate of lead chromate.   This video explains how to test the presence of group I lead ion in a given salt….

Chemical Tests for Oxalate

Oxalates are salts of oxalic acid containing oxalate ion. Oxalate ion is a dianion. Upon protonation, oxalate ion forms a commonly known compound, oxalic acid. The commonly known oxalate salts are sodium oxalate, potassium oxalate etc. The calcium metal ion reacts with oxalate ion to form an insoluble precipitate of calcium oxalate, which is the primary constituent of most of the common kind of Kidney stones.   This video explains how to test the presence of oxalate ion in a given salt.  

Melting Point of Ice

Melting point of a solid is defined as the temperature at which a solid changes into liquid. Melting point of a solid indicates the strength of the force of attraction between the particles of the solid. On heating a solid, its molecule absorbs energy in the form of heat and their kinetic energy increases. As the kinetic energy increase the temperature of the solid increases. As a result, the force of attraction between the molecules decreases and the molecules become more and more separated. This increases the potential energy of the molecule and the particles leave their fixed positions and…

Equivalent Resistance of Resistors (Series)

An electric circuit is simply a closed loop through which charges can continuously move. An electric circuit basically contains a source of electricity, a load resistance, a switch or a key for turning the circuit on or off at one’s convenience. When two or more resistors are connected such a way that one end of one resistor is connected to the starting end of the other, then the circuit is called a Series Circuit. Since the current has only one path to take, the current through a series circuit is the same through each resistor. The total resistance/effective resistance of…

Rate of Respiration

Respiration is the process during which simple carbohydrates, like glucose, break down into simpler substances and liberate carbon dioxide and energy. The compound used, or oxidized, during respiration is called a respiratory substrate. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are examples of respiratory substrates, and carbohydrates are the preferred respiratory substrate among them. Respiration produces a great deal of energy that is needed by plants to grow and stay healthy. Excess sugars produced by photosynthesis that are not needed for respiration and growth are stored as starch which can then be converted back to sugars when needed during periods of low light….

To Study the Properties of Acids and Bases

The sour and bitter tastes we find in food are due to the presence of acids and bases. Some naturally occurring acids are: vinegar (acetic acid), citric acid (present in orange and lemon), tartaric acid (present in tamarind), etc. Also our stomach produces hydrochloric acid which helps in the digestion of food. Some commonly used bases are baking soda and tooth paste. Tooth paste is a basic substance used for cleaning the teeth and it neutralizes the excess of acids present in the mouth and prevents tooth decay.   This video explains how to study the properties of acids and…

Tests for Aluminium Ion

Aluminium is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. Aluminum has three oxidation states. The most common one is +3. The other two are +1 and +2. One +3 oxidation state for Aluminum can be found in the compound aluminum oxide, Al2O3. In AlO, aluminum monoxide, it has a +2 oxidation state, and AlH has an oxidation state of +1.It is found in various salts like aluminium chloride and aluminium oxide as Al (III) ion. Aluminium ion is precipitated as its hydroxide by adding ammonium hydroxide to its solution.   This video explains…

Life Cycle of a Mosquito

The mosquitoes are a family of small, midge-like flies. Like all flies, mosquitoes go through four stages in their life – egg, larva, pupa, and adult. We call this as the life cycle. Each of these stages is morphologically different from the other, with even the habitat of each stage differing. The first three stages – egg, larva and pupa are largely aquatic, whereas the adult stage is aerial. The eggs are laid one at a time and they float on the surface of the water. Most eggs hatch into larvae within 48 hours. Mosquito larvae live in water from…

Metre Bridge-Law of Combination of resistors

The metre bridge, consists of a one metre long wire of uniform cross sectional area, fixed on a wooden block. A scale is attached to the block. Two gaps are formed on it by using thick metal strips in order to make the Wheat stone’s bridge. The metre bridge is operates under Wheat stone’s principle. Here, four resistors P, Q, R, and S are connected to form the network ABCD. In the balancing condition, there is no deflection on the galvanometer. Then, P/q = R/S.   This video explains how to verify the laws of resistances in series and parallel….

Velocity of Pulse Propagated Through a Slinky

A slinky is a long helical spring, usually made of steel. It is flexible and has appreciable elasticity. It produces transverse waves when one end is fixed and the other end is stretched and given a jerk at right angle to its length. It produces longitudinal waves when compressions are given at regular intervals of time at the free end of the slinky. A disturbance which propagates through a medium is called wave.   This video explains how to determine the velocity of a pulse propagated through a slinky or a stretched string.  

Newton’s law of Cooling

The Newton’s Law of Cooling is named after the famous English Physicist Sir Isaac Newton, who conducted the first experiments on the nature of cooling. According to Newton’s Law of Cooling, the rate of cooling of a body is directly proportional to the difference in temperatures of the body (T) and the surrounding (T0), provided difference in temperature should not exceed by 30 °C.   This video explains how to study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and its time of cooling by plotting a cooling curve.  

Chemical tests for Bromide

Bromides are chemical compounds containing bromide ion. Bromide ion is formed when bromine atom gains an electron. The examples of bromide salts are sodium bromide, potassium bromide, cesium bromide etc. Bromide is also present in typical seawater with a concentration of around 65 mg/L. One important salt of bromide is silver bromide which is used in photographic films.   This video explains how to test the presence of bromide ion in a given salt.  

The Law of Conservation of Mass

A chemical reaction is process by which one set of chemical substances is transformed to another. The French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier, who is known as the father of modern chemistry, proved that the mass of the products in a chemical reaction is equal to the mass of the reactants.   “The Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction”.   This video explains how to verify the Law of Conservation of Mass during a chemical reaction.  

Double Displacement Reaction

Double displacement reactions may be defined as the chemical reactions in which one component each of both the reacting molecules get exchanged to form the products. During this reaction, the cations and anions of two different compounds switch places, forming two entirely different compounds. Double displacement reactions generally take place in aqueous solutions in which the ions precipitate and there is an exchange of ions. For example, on mixing a solution of barium chloride with sodium sulphate, a white precipitate of barium sulphate is immediately formed. These reactions are ionic in nature. The reactants changes into ions when dissolved in…

Reaction of Iron Nails with Copper Sulphate Solution in Water

When an iron nail is dipped in copper sulphate solution, a brown coating of copper is formed on the surface of iron and the colour of copper sulphate solution changes from blue to light green. This reaction shows that iron is more reactive than copper as it displaces copper from its solution and iron passes into solution as Fe (II) ions and ferrous sulphate solution is formed.   This video explains the chemical change occurs during the reaction of iron nails with copper sulphate solution.  

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