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A Guide to Understanding Battery Specifications

A battery is a device that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. This summary provides an introduction to the terminology used to describe, classify, and compare batteries for hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles. It provides a basic background, defines the variables used to characterize battery operating conditions, and describes the manufacturer specifications used to characterize battery nominal and maximum characteristics.   Battery Basics Cell, modules, and packs– Hybrid and electric vehicles have a high voltage battery pack that consists of individual modules and cells organized in series and parallel. A cell is the smallest, packaged form…

Sensors Demystified

What Is a Sensor? A sensor is a device for detecting and signalling a changing condition. And what is this “changing condition”? Often this is simply the presence or absence of an object or material (discrete sensing). It can also be a measurable quantity like a change in distance, size or color (analog sensing). This information, or the sensor’s output, is the basis for the monitoring and control of a manufacturing process.   Contact vs. Non-Contact Technologies Contact sensors are electromechanical devices that detect change through direct physical contact with the target object. Contact sensors: Typically do not require power…

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