The results from this study suggest that the CoE instrument may be a fruitful path towards realising capacity for human resource development, organisational capacity and the creation of an institutional and legal framework in the research and higher education field, including positive effects on innovation and socio-economic development. In addition the results suggest that the consolidation of resources involved in CoE schemes does not necessarily imply a choice between a purely scientific or socioeconomic agenda, but could instead act to bridge these two type of goals. Moreover, there is a clear indication that these schemes require research organisation (including funders) to become more professional, something that will ultimately stimulate the research system as a whole away from piecemeal non-directed funding and towards a capacity for priority setting and more systematic evaluations of the research effort. All these are key research development capacities.
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